a) Each of the following TCP/IP applications are used to help monitor and troubleshoot the use of computer networks.


For each of these applications, describe:

• their relationship to the TCP/IP reference model

• their operation

• how each is used to troubleshoot

• their typical syntax.

i) Ping;

ii) Traceroute;

iii) Telnet.

b) Explain the operation of the FTP application and its THREE distinct transmission modes.

c) Explain how the use of legacy applications such as FTP and Telnet are fundamentally flawed for modern communications and how their shortcomings can be simply addressed.

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