a) Identify which layer (of the OSI 7 Layer Model, TCPIP Reference Model or both) these technologies, protocols and standards operate at and what they are used for:


i) ICMP;

ii) X500;

iii) ARP;

iv) HTTP;

v) IS-IS;

vi) IEEE 802.11;

vii) EIA232;

viii) X400.

b) At what layer(s) is data compression and encryption achieved in the OSI 7 layer model? Explain your answer.
c) Explain the process by which data is formatted and exchanged between each layer of the OSI 7 layer model.

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