Modern operating systems such as Unix and Linux are based on a kernel which controls user and system processes.


a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘kernel’ in the context of an operating system?

b) As a server-based operating system Linux has special processes called daemons. Describe what a daemon process is and how it differs from a standard user process.

c) If the configuration file of a Linux daemon process is changed, why will the ‘process’ not necessarily know about the change until a reboot? Explain how a user can get it to recognise the change without rebooting.

d) Explain what the significance of the Linux directory /etc/rc.d/ is to a daemon process. Why does a user need root privileges to change its contents?

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