Modern ‘peer coupled’ and/or client/server network protocols such as Ethernet and TCP/IP are based on the ISO OSI reference model.


a) With the aid of a diagram show how Ethernet and the layers of the TCP/IP model correspond to the ISO OSI model.

Which aspects of the TCP/IP protocol are left entirely to the application?

b) In the context of the ISO OSI model, explain what the term ‘peer coupled’ means and how this relates to the encapsulation of data. (12 marks)

c) Explain why might it be the case that the ISO OSI model is based on the behaviour of TCP/IP rather than TCP/IP on the ISO OSI model.

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